Definition of Ryuk Ransomware
Ryuk is a ransomware family that targets large companies, typically with Microsoft Windows operating system, and encrypts data to hold it hostage until a ransom is paid. In more technical terms, Ryuk ransomware is a human-operated ransomware family that uses AES-256–based file encryption to encrypt all files on the targeted systems, except for those with the .dll, .lnk, .hrmlog, .ini, and .exe extension, appending the .ryk extension to the newly encrypted files. Ryuk is considered to be a unique ransomware family because of continued human involvement throughout the attack, specifically, the group behind this ransomware uses manual hacking technique and open-source tools to move laterally through the network
Most ransomware attacks use a “spray and pray” approach, in which they hit multiple targets at once and hope for infiltration. Ryuk uses targeted attacks; it is an advanced persistent threat (APT) with human threat actors active in the network for an extended period of time. The network is infiltrated, with a prolonged period of data collection and network activity.
Ryuk continues to evolve. While still advanced with human involvement, that human interaction is no longer required for lateral movement. The newest strains of Ryuk are capable of auto-propagation through systems, once loaded into the network, using worm-like techniques. Because Ryuak doesn’t check to see if a system is already infected, it continues to re-infect systems, which makes the ransomware family that much more dangerous.
How Does Ryuk Attack?
Ryuk has been used to target organizations in several different industries, including hospitals, governmental institutions, and news outlets. It’s used to “big game hunt”—an organization is specifically chosen before the attack. The victims are typically larger organizations with multiple or high-value critical assets because of the increased chances of the ransom being paid.
Part of what makes Ryuk so dangerous is it’s absolutely benign-looking delivery system: a common Microsoft Word document. The document is attached to a basic phishing email, often sent from a spoofed legitimate source. But, the document has a Emotet trojan downloader hidden in the macros, and it cleverly tricks a user into enabling macros in order to view the document. This then lets Ryuk launch the attack against the system.
Once the Emotet trojan is let loose, it downloads additional malware to install Trickbot onto the system. Trickbot is spyware that can collect the necessary credentials for the attackers to successfully move through the infected systems without hindrance.
Once the attackers have the credentials, they recon the network and systems to determine whether or not the organization is worth attacking. During this espionage, the threat actors do extensive mapping of the systems and identify which critical assets to target during the attack.
As part of this initial phase, Trickbot modules allow the malware to gain Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) credentials via brute-force attack and create service user accounts on authentication servers on the network. This results in a faster and less detectable final deployment of the encryption. Once recon and set up is finished, the Ryuk encryption is deployed on the critical asset targets.
Many security solutions use registered signatures to scan for known threats. Ryuk ransomware is stealthy—it creates mutations of the original variant so it registers as a previously unseen threat. By mutating to a new variant, it doesn’t flag as a known threat. This constant evolution is a key reason for a more robust security solution—there are more factors than just looking for known security flags.
The attack targets are always what the organization would consider critical assets. However, what each organization considered critical assets isn’t the same across the board—depending on the industry, this could be protected customer data, patient charts, student transcripts, or an OT network. Ryuk’s goal is to target what would best cripple your organization because that increases the chances of you paying the ransom.
Ryuk encrypts the system in such a way that the organization can determine exactly what’s been encrypted, yet leave you still capable of digitally paying the ransom. Ryuk has been known to partially encrypt some files, which prevents decrypting the files with anything other than the designated key. This puts your decryption attempts at a high risk of causing file corruption.
How to Detect Ryuk Ransomware
Detecting ransomware like Ryuk requires a robust security solution like Ordr. Ordr integrates with Active Directory to tie devices with users, and ensure all access is valid, which can be used to detect any Ryuk-created service accounts as they appear on the network. Ordr also monitors for exploits, attacker tools and reconnaissance network scans with an integrated threat detection engine, and uses known behavioral baselines to detect unusual or suspicious traffic, which could flag Ryuk’s internal lateral movement before encryption deployment. The behavioral baseline capabilities can also track RDP activity, and if any suspicious activity is detected, Ordr can immediately obtain a list of infected assets and track down infection roots.
Furthermore, Ordr can proactively reduce the attack surface in ransomware attacks by using its discovery process to profile what devices connect to your organization’s network. High-risk devices can then be properly segmented. Ordr also offers retrospective security to look back at anomalous communications by devices in the network to newly discovered indicators of compromise.
Ways to Prevent a Ryuk Attack
Preventing a Ryuk ransomware attack can be accomplished by having a strong security solution that is foundational sound, tested often, and is continuously improved using an iterative approach. Your organization should also have a plan in place for handling an attack in progress once it has already infiltrated and been detected.
1. Focus on the basics and drill often
Fully define your organization’s attack profile. Understand what could make you a target by discovering and classifying every asset in your network, identifying the risks they bring, and determining which are critical assets to protect. Ensure the proper protections are in place for those assets. Keep patches updated and use enhanced security practices like multifactor authentication and microsegmenation.
2. Have a plan
Develop policies and procedures that embrace security methodologies and ensure that all teams are aware of how to best protect the network. People are a big factor in the cybersecurity picture, and everyone needs to understand and fulfill their part in order for the organization to have robust security. Defining risk management and accounting for any federal, state, or industry compliance standards is an absolute must.
3. Improve security continuously
As technology develops and new threats enter the threat landscape, it’s critical that security evolves over time to remain effective. Mitigate risk where possible, and document and patch vulnerabilities as they’re encountered. Ensure that you have a security solution that can detect known threats as well as behavioral anomalies that may provide early indicators of an attack in progress. Inspect external traffic communications to the Internet as well as East West traffic to detect lateral movement.
Keep improving over time. Operational readiness is key to handling any cyberattack, and it should include the input of not only security, but also key decision makers, as they provide a unique perspective in regards to risk.
4. Implement Zero Trust
Zero Trust is a very effective security methodology that’s best suited to the newly evolved threat landscape. It relies on the principle of least privilege and helps keep user access at safe levels, and it embraces microsegmentation, which can be a critical facet when trying to shut down an attack in progress. Additionally, Zero Trust prevents standard users from installing applications—that’s an important hurdle to place in front of a Ryuk ransomware attack.
The Path to Better Security
The increase of complexity in the threat landscape will only grow, and it is up to your organization to put a solution in place that can expand to meet the needs that will come from threat expansion. The insidious malware family of Ryuk ransomware is an advanced, persistent threat that can seem overwhelming, especially since you deal with mutated, worn-like propagation capabilities and a human-operated attacker. The human element in the Ryuk ransomware makes it extremely formidable, as does its combining with Emotet and Trickbot to infiltrate and take over the network. But you can detect and halt a Ryuk ransomware attack with the right advanced solution.
Using an advanced security solution like Ordr gives your organization the necessary arsenal, such as microsegmentation, Zero Trust, internal lateral movement tracking, and much more.
Ordr gives you full visibility into all the devices connected to your network, helps you understand their purpose and operation, and automates management and security policies to ensure maximal protection. Should you fall under attack, Ordr can help you rapidly isolate and protect infected devices. To see how Ordr can help your organization take its cybersecurity protection to the next level, request a demo today.